Effects of frost, ice, snow, slush and fluids on aircraft performance.
Aircraft in general and common critical areas.
De-icing/Anti-icing operations & fluids
De-icing coordination procedures in general.
Basic characteristics of aircraft de-icing/anti-icing fluids, including causes and consequences of fluid remaining on surfaces, and dried and/or rehydrated residues.
General techniques for removing deposits of frost, ice, slush and snow from aeroplane surfaces and for anti-icing.
De-icing/anti-icing procedures in general and specific measures to be performed on different aircraft types and de-icing using hot air.
Types of checks required.
Fluid application and limitations of holdover time tables.
De-icing/anti-icing codes and communication procedures (RT/E), knowledge of the English language.
Meteorological considerations on snow and ice formation.
Conditions which can lead to the formation of snow and ice on the aircraft.
Runway & Aprons
Operation on contaminated runways, taxiways and aprons.
Runway Contaminants (Wet, Ice, Compacted snow, Dry snow, Wet snow, Slush, Water.
Specific gravity (WED) and it’s use / meaning.
Take-off performance (roll resistance, RTO/braking, x-wind, etc.).
Braking actions and friction coefficient (incl. variations e.g. Russia) – Flight planning in relation to contaminated runways.
Runway reports (MOTNE and SNOWTAM).
Course reference material:
AEA guidelines 12. Edition 2015.
Meteorology related to de-/anti-icing.
Aircraft contamination & performance aspects.
Safety precautions and health issues.
De-/anti-icing procedures and fluids.
Clean Aircraft concept.